A new watershed management module,Intelligent Watershed Management(IWM),was proposed.The decision need for watershed management was analyzed before the conception and components of IWM were formulated.The idea of IWM comes from the principles of bionics and imitates the process of human decisions.The IWM is significantly differing from traditional watershed management,which includes three main steps,i.e.watershed information inquiring,input-output response modeling at the watershed scale,and optimized decision making.Four key issues of IWM were identified,including the management goal,suitable models,non-linear responses and computational requirement,and the uncertainties in the watershed system.The modeling framework of IWM was developed and some new algorithms were proposed,such as Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming(REILP) and Nonlinearity-Interval Mapping Scheme(NIMS) for simulation-optimization analysis.Some cases were demonstrated for the efficiency of the proposed models.