针对传统湖泊污染治理在工程设计上存在的不足,在分析传统方法与面向对象的智能设计方法差异性的基础上,提出面向对象的智能设计方法的关键特征,即:对象视角、因果为基、集点成面、时空优化. 以蓝藻控制为对象,基于垂向水动力扰动机和抽水除藻回灌技术,对蓝藻控制和水质改善的效果进行了面向对象的智能设计分析. 主要的研究结论如下:传统的工程设计范式无法科学指导切实有效的湖泊污染工程设计与决策; 在案例中,智能设计方法基于对象视角和定量因果分析,确定扰动机技术对于实现低到中等的水质改善目标(如在本试验水体中设置Chla浓度峰值控制目标为70 μg·L-1)具有比抽水技术高得多的效率,但如果水质目标高于一定值(如在本试验水体中设置Chla浓度峰值控制目标>100 μg·L-1)时,扰动机不能实现,抽水技术可以实现,但单独使用抽水技术成本太高; 结合两种技术比单独使用其中一项都更有效率,且两种技术的定量规模控制对实际工程效益和成本具有显著影响. 本研究显示了应用面向对象的智能设计方法的重要性与潜力,为促进湖泊污染的有效治理、有效改善湖泊水质以及相关决策提供一种新的方法学和思路.
Regarding the shortage and deficiency of traditional lake pollution control engineering techniques, a new lake pollution control engineering approach was proposed in this study, based on object-oriented intelligent design (OOID) from the perspective of intelligence. It can provide a new methodology and framework for effectively controlling lake pollution and improving water quality. The differences between the traditional engineering techniques and the OOID approach were compared. The key points for OOID were described as object perspective, cause and effect foundation, set points into surface, and temporal and spatial optimization. The blue algae control in lake was taken as an example in this study. The effect of algae control and water quality improvement were analyzed in details from the perspective of object-oriented intelligent design based on two engineering techniques (vertical hydrodynamic mixer and pumping algaecide recharge). The modeling results showed that the traditional engineering design paradigm cannot provide scientific and effective guidance for engineering design and decision-making regarding lake pollution. Intelligent design approach is based on the object perspective and quantitative causal analysis in this case. This approach identified that the efficiency of mixers was much higher than pumps in achieving the goal of low to moderate water quality improvement. However, when the objective of water quality exceeded a certain value (such as the control objective of peak Chla concentration exceeded 100 μg·L-1 in this experimental water), the mixer cannot achieve this goal. The pump technique can achieve the goal but with higher cost. The efficiency of combining the two techniques was higher than using one of the two techniques alone. Moreover, the quantitative scale control of the two engineering techniques has a significant impact on the actual project benefits and costs.